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Electron elementary knowledge: Solar cell's principle
[Add date:2008/7/22 ]
  The solar illumination ties in semiconductor p-n, forms the new hole - doublet, in p-n ties the electric field under the function, the hole flows to the p area by the n area, the electron flows to the n area by the p area, after the key-on, forms the electric current. This is the photoelectric effect solar cell's principle of work.  
First, the solar electrical energy generation way solar electrical energy generation has two ways, one kind is the light - hot - electricity conversion mode, another kind is the light - electricity direct conversion mode.   

(1) the light - hot - electricity conversion mode through the heat energy electricity generation which produces using the solar radiation, generally is the heat energy which will absorb by the solar energy collector transforms the working substance the vapor, actuates the steam turbine electricity generation again. The preceding process is the light - hot switching process; The latter process is the hot - electricity switching process, is the same with the ordinary thermoelectricity generation. The solar energy hot electricity generation's shortcoming is the efficiency is very low, but the cost is very high, estimated that its investment must need at least to invest 20 ~ 2,500,000,000 US dollars compared to the ordinary thermoelectric power station expensive 5~10 time of 0.1 1000MW solar energy heating and power station, the average 1kW investment is 2000~2500 US dollars. Therefore, can only the small scale apply at present in the special situation, but uses massively in the economy is not very worthwhile, has not been able competes with the ordinary thermoelectric power station or the nuclear power station.   

(2) light - electricity direct conversion mode this way uses the photoelectric effect, the solar radiant energy will transform the electrical energy, the basic installment which the light - electricity transforms will be the solar cell directly. The solar cell is one kind as a result of a photoproduction volta effect, but the solar energy of light will transform directly as the electrical energy component, is a semiconductor photorectifier, when solar illumination to photorectifier on, the photorectifier will turn sun's energy of light the electrical energy, will produce the electric current. When many battery series or were parallel may become have the quite big output solar cell square formation. The solar cell is one kind has the future new power source greatly, has the permanence, sanitary and the flexible three big merits. The solar cell life is long, so long as sun exists, the solar cell may an investment, but long-term use; With the thermoelectricity generation, the nuclear energy power generation compare, the solar cell cannot cause the environmental pollution; The solar cell may major and medium slightly develop simultaneously, as big as 1,000,000 kilowatts medium power plants, slightly to only supplies the solar energy battery which a household uses, this is other power sources is unable to compare.  

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